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Horti-Sempre Phase 2, Nacala Corridor in Northern Mozambique

Overview

General Information

Author

Michael Fink

Last updated

June 2018

Overall goal

The overall objective of Horti-Sempre is to increase the annual net income of 25,000 smallholders by 30% against baseline by supporting the growth of the horticultural sector in Northern Mozambique in view of its proven importance as income creator.

Country

  • Mozambique

Budget

6'500'000 CHF

Duration

01/2017 - 12/2020 (48 months)

Summary

Description

The overall objective of the Horti-Sempre Phase 2 Project is to increase smallholder’s annual net income by 30% against baseline by supporting the growth of the horticultural sector in Northern Mozambique in view of its proven importance as income creator. To fulfil its mission and reach the overall objective, Swisscontact proposes for Horti-sempre Phase 2 a logic of intervention based on three main Outcomes that unfold around three main project components namely (1) inputs and practices, (2) irrigation and (3) sector competitiveness. OUTCOME No 1: Productivity of horticultural smallholders in the Nacala Corridor in Northern Mozambique increased OUTCOME No 2: Horticultural smallholders in the Nacala Corridor in Northern Mozambique increased their area under irrigation OUTCOME No 3: Market responsiveness and competitiveness of the horti-cultural sector in Northern Mozambique is increased The three components will be complemented with two transversal topics: Women’s Economic Empowerment (WEE) throughout the different interventions and through special women targeted interventions and Access to existing funding options. Based on experience from Phase 1, Swisscontact beliefs that Horti-Sempre Phase 2 has the potential to reach 10'000 semi-commercial and 15'000 subsistence male and female smallholders in Northern Mozambique increasing their income by up to 30%.

Sectors of Intervention

  • Agriculture
  • Food security
  • Rural development
  • Water management

Images

  • Training on basic irrigation solutionsTraining on basic irrigation solutions
  • Training on agricultural practicesTraining on agricultural practices
  • Construction of underground damConstruction of underground dam
  • Protected horticulture cultivationProtected horticulture cultivation
  • Underground dam filled with waterUnderground dam filled with water
  • Basic irrigation solution in use (hip-pump)Basic irrigation solution in use (hip-pump)

Logos

Risk perspective

Natural hazards (hydro-meteorological and geological)

Hazard name

Heat waves

Exposure

Yes

Comments

According to the World Bank, the number of hot days per year increased by 25 in the last 40 years, and much of this has occurred during the southern hemisphere autumn. This corresponds to the first harvest cycle of many major grains across the country, with significant implications for agricultural pests and yields.

Consequence

Key consequences include a shortening of the growing season, crop failure (no yield) or crop losses (lower yields)

Likelihood

Very likely

Extent

Harmful

Risk Level

High risk

Hazard name

Droughts

Exposure

Not sure

Comments

Since the 1960s, mean rainfall has decreased by an average of 2.5 millimeters per month (3.1%) per decade. Increased rainfall over the northern regions, highly variable conditions in the central regions, and persistent drought periods coupled with episodic floods in the south. In Northern Mozambique, seasonal droughts are occurring, meaning that rains are delayed.

Consequence

Delayed rains result in loss of seeds of rainfed crops (e.g. maize) and the need to rebuy and re-sow crops

Likelihood

Likely

Extent

Harmful

Risk Level

Medium risk

Hazard name

Storms, tornadoes, hurricanes, strong winds, sandstorms

Exposure

Yes

Comments

Frequency of storms has increased, but events are seasonally concentrated and farmers normally wait with sowing until the risk has decreased.

Consequence

Destruction of basic infrastructure and crops in early stage of growth

Likelihood

Unlikely

Extent

Harmful

Risk Level

Low risk

Hazard name

Flash floods, floods

Exposure

Yes

Comments

The proportion of days with heavy rainfall events has increased by 2.6% per decade according to the World Bank. The number of days with heavy rainfall currently amounts to ~25 per year. However, events are seasonally concentrated and farmers normally wait with sowing until this risk is lower.

Consequence

Destruction of basic infrastructure and crops in early stage of growth, destruction of trade infrastructure (e.g. bridges and roads)

Likelihood

Likely

Extent

Harmful

Risk Level

Medium risk

Hazard name

Erratic Rains

Exposure

Yes

Comments

Recently, rainfalls in Northern Mozambique are out of usual patterns which farmers rely on. Tendency towards delayed rainfalls.

Consequence

It is difficult for farmers to predict the start of the rainy season. Due to a delayed start of the rainy season, the growing cycle is postponed into the hot season when it is difficult to produce horticulture. Higher risk of pests due to humidity.

Likelihood

Very likely

Extent

Harmful

Risk Level

High risk

Hazards arising from environmental degradation

Hazard name

Degradation (land, soil, ecosystems, biodiversity)

Exposure

Yes

Comments

Soil degradation is frequently the result of poor conservation practices (no soil coverage, deep tillage, poor biodiversity) aggravated by heavy rains. Consequently, more inputs are needed resulting in a vicious circle of degradation.

Consequence

Key consequences are lower yields due to degraded soil and higher need of farmers to use inputs (fertilizers)

Likelihood

Likely

Extent

Harmful

Risk Level

Medium risk

Hazard name

Water pollution (surface and subterranean)

Exposure

Yes

Comments

Water pollution mainly in peri-urban areas due to urban water and soil contamination (e.g. from factories, waste, etc.).

Consequence

Key consequences are the loss in product quality, as well as potential health risks for consumers. Assessment of hazard is difficult because of limited data availability on water and soil quality.

Likelihood

Likely

Extent

Slightly harmful

Risk Level

Low risk

Hazard name

Pests and epidemics

Exposure

Yes

Comments

Pests and epidemics occur because of poor crop rotation and lack of knowledge or availability of properly formulated defensives (pesticides, insecticides, fungicides). Pests and epidemics are ocurring more frequently during the hot and rainy season compared to the cold and dry season.

Consequence

Key consequences are crop losses (sometimes failure) and that farmers avoid production in warmer and wetter months of the year

Likelihood

Likely

Extent

Harmful

Risk Level

Medium risk

Hazards arising from climate change (and climate variability)

Hazard name

General trends towards higher or lower mean annual temperatures

Exposure

No

Comments

Temperatures have generally increased by 0.6° C over the last fourty years, with particularly pronounced increases observed during the hot season (September - March). This increase has so far not considerably affected horticulture as the vegetables are produced during the drier and cooler winter months (April - August).

Hazard name

Changes in frequency and intensity of climatic extreme events and associated disasters (e.g. cold and heat waves, flood, drought, storms, hurricanes, cyclones)

Exposure

No

Comments

Frequency of floods is increasing in the country, but mostly in the South and Centre where Mozambique does not control the dam system on the main river (e.g. Limpopo, Save, etc.). Other events (hurricans, cyclones, etc.) are also concentrated in the South/Centre.

Hazard name

Shifts in season

Exposure

Yes

Comments

A shift of seasons is observed in Northern Mozambique. Average annual rainfall has remained similiar (or even slightly increased). However, the precipitation patterns have changed. More erratic and locally concentrated rainfall is observed which often results in floods and a shorter growing season.

Consequence

Shorter growing season, longer idle season (hunger period - epoca de fome), unpredictability of sowing time, loss of first seeds (investment), extension of growing season into warmer months, loss of 1 or more production cycles

Likelihood

Very likely

Extent

Harmful

Risk Level

High risk

Detailed risk assessment needed?

Yes - A detailed risk assessment is needed

Impact perspective

Estimate impact on climate change

Component of the activity

Increasing volumes and de-seasonalization of horticulture production

Impacts on climate change

Possibly decreasing emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) due to local horticultural production and shorter transport routes. The international and inter-regional imports might decrease due to a higher availability of locally produced vegetables.

Estimate impact on the environment

Environmental Area

Ecosystems

Component of the activity

Underground Dams

Impact on environment

Small-scale rainwater retention increasing soil humidity potentially changing the ecosystem; limited additional pollution due to the plastic used to build the dam

Environmental Area

Soil

Component of the activity

Inputs (Fertilizer & Pesticides)

Impact on environment

Use of fertilizer and pesticides by horticulture smallholders is common. However, the used amounts are very limited due to a lack of financial resources. Thus, a small negative impact on the soils can be expected. The Project only gives technical advice following a market-approach and does not directly promote and increased use of fertilizers and pesticides for the horticultural production.

Detailed impact assessment needed?

No - A detailed impact assessment is not needed