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Cambodian Horticulture Project Advancing Income and Nutrition (CHAIN) phase 3

Resumen

Información general

Autor

Moritz Krüger

Última actualización

Noviembre 2020

Objetivo general

Promotion of horticulture value chains in Preah Vihear, Stung Treng, Kratie and Oddar Meanchey provinces, with a strong focus on women and delivering sustainable income growth and improved household food security and resilience

País

  • Camboya

Presupuesto

CHF 1.900.000

Duración

01.01.2021 - 31.12.2022

Resumen

Descripción

In Cambodia, more than 20 % of the rural poor suffer from food insecurity. The increasing market demand for vegetable and fruits provides a huge opportunity for small holder farmers and processors, in particular women to increase income and food security. The Cambodia Horticulture Advancing Income and Nutrition (CHAIN) project supports farmers in increasing sustainable production, income and resilience in four of the poorest provinces of Cambodia - Kratie, Stung Treng, Preah Vihear and Oddar Manchey. With the particular focus on the fruits and vegetables sector, CHAIN tackles market system constraints to improve the service delivery to poor farmers households, women headed households and ethnic minorities. CHAIN will support smallholder farmers to diversify into growing fruit and vegetables through the introduction of smart horticultural techniques and market linkages required to generate much-needed additional income, and it will also address poor household nutrition by introducing diversification of diets.

Términos clave

  • agriculture and food security

Sectores de Intervención

  • Agricultura
  • Seguridad alimentaria
  • Desarrollo rural
  • Gestión del agua
  • Otros
  • Vegetables Production
  • Marketing

Imágenes

  • Open home garden in Kratie provinceOpen home garden in Kratie province
  • Farmers group planningFarmers group planning
  • Round Year vegetables production in Plastic Net Round Year vegetables production in Plastic Net

Logos

Perspectiva del riesgo

Amenazas naturales (hidrometeorológicas y geológicas)

Nombre de la amenaza

Olas de calor

Exposición

Comentarios

Heat wave in 2016 destroyed many plots of vegetables farms . In 2016, People have to buy drinking water, the prices of water has almost three times increased

Consecuencia

higher freshwater demand for people and livestock. The level of water in many rivers are very low

Descripción de la consecuencia

People and animal get sick . Farmers earned less income

Probabilidad

Muy probable

Alcance

Ligeramente perjudicial

Importancia del riesgo

Riesgo medio

Consecuencia

slower and reduced labour work

Probabilidad

Probable

Alcance

Ligeramente perjudicial

Importancia del riesgo

Riesgo bajo

Consecuencia

Heatstroke in particular for elderly and children

Probabilidad

Probable

Alcance

Perjudicial

Importancia del riesgo

Riesgo medio

Nombre de la amenaza

Sequias

Exposición

Comentarios

In 2019 and 2020, most of water ponds were dried up, water level in many river are very low in historical and ground water level are dept. Deforestation reduce groundwater recharge, and increase evaporation and water demand during dry/hot season.

Consecuencia

reduced water availability

Descripción de la consecuencia

Reduced water availability for household consumption and agriculture, particularly of paddy rice, cassava, rubber, and maize.

Probabilidad

Muy probable

Alcance

Perjudicial

Importancia del riesgo

Riesgo alto

Consecuencia

loss of crop production & income

Descripción de la consecuencia

Partially severe economic losses (also due to the lack of business continuity planning) for rice and vegetable farmers. Households with limited to no savings are left to buy seeds for next season or drinking water. Impacts from strong droughts may be felt for up to 2 years. As a result of low coping mechanisms, some communities may not recover from such loss.

Probabilidad

Muy probable

Alcance

Perjudicial

Importancia del riesgo

Riesgo alto

Consecuencia

long-term immigration

Descripción de la consecuencia

migration occurs in various forms, both part-time and permanently, to urban areas, neighbouring countries or provinces

Probabilidad

Probable

Alcance

Sumamente perjudicial

Importancia del riesgo

Riesgo alto

Nombre de la amenaza

Crecidas repentinas, inundaciones

Exposición

Comentarios

Flash flood in 2019, have destroyed some houses and many vegetables farms were washed away. Dam broken in Laos in 2018 destoyed hundreds of houses in two provinces. Many people were evacuated.

Consecuencia

loss of crop production & income

Descripción de la consecuencia

Long-lasting episodes with too much rain cause rotting of rice plants & vegetables during rainy season. The existing drainage and irrigation practices used by communities are largely insufficient to ensure the survival of crops and seeds during and after intense rain episodes followed by severe droughts.

Probabilidad

Muy probable

Alcance

Perjudicial

Importancia del riesgo

Riesgo alto

Consecuencia

destruction of houses & infrastructure, disruption of market access

Probabilidad

Muy probable

Alcance

Perjudicial

Importancia del riesgo

Riesgo alto

Nombre de la amenaza

Tormentas, tornados y/o huracanes, vientos fuertes, tormentas de arena

Exposición

Comentarios

Seasonal storms and strong winds destroyed over than 1000 houses and thousands of trees. Lightening killed animals and people

Consecuencia

Damage to houses and buildings.

Descripción de la consecuencia

Destruction of light agricultural infrastructure (bamboo scaffolding, nets etc.), damage to houses and critical roads/bridges. Storms and strong winds are observed more frequently in past years. Impacts are rather local.

Probabilidad

Probable

Alcance

Ligeramente perjudicial

Importancia del riesgo

Riesgo bajo

Amenazas que se producen debido a la degradación del medioambiente

Nombre de la amenaza

Deforestación

Exposición

Comentarios

Massive deforestation in Cambodia is highly likely to be the root cause of the devastating change in the observed rainfall pattern. It is caused by legal (attribution of land concession to foreign companies, building of roads in forested area, etc…) and illegal logging.

Consecuencia

Alteration of hydrological cycle and micro-climate, reduced water availability

Descripción de la consecuencia

The changed hydrological cycle has increased the frequency of both floods and droughts.

Probabilidad

Muy probable

Alcance

Sumamente perjudicial

Importancia del riesgo

Riesgo alto

Nombre de la amenaza

Plagas y epidemias

Exposición

Comentarios

locust, rats, flea beetle larvae

Consecuencia

loss of income and crop production

Descripción de la consecuencia

Invasion of flea beetle larvae (Chrysomelidae: Alticini), which leads to a severe destruction of vegetables, especially root and leaf vegetables. Occurrence increased in the past 3-4 years.

Probabilidad

Probable

Alcance

Perjudicial

Importancia del riesgo

Riesgo medio

Nombre de la amenaza

Contaminación del agua (superficiales y subterráneas)

Exposición

Comentarios

In 2018, warm army destroyed over than 10,000 ha of corn plantation. Water pollution is concern recently in Cambodia

Consecuencia

loss of fishery resources and income

Descripción de la consecuencia

Seasonal, severe invasion of Mekong river by a fist-thick layer of algae/aquatic plants which completely disrupt the normal fishing activities. This phenomenon started recently (around 2010-2012) and is observed in its maximum extension since a couple of years only.

Probabilidad

Probable

Alcance

Perjudicial

Importancia del riesgo

Riesgo medio

Amenazas que se producen debido al cambio climático (y la variabilidad del clima)

Nombre de la amenaza

Tendencia general al aumento o disminución de la temperatura media

Exposición

No está claro

Comentarios

higher mean annual temperature +5-10% (rel. term)

Consecuencia

higher water demand for people, livestock and agriculture

Probabilidad

Probable

Alcance

Perjudicial

Importancia del riesgo

Riesgo medio

Consecuencia

decrease of crop productivity

Descripción de la consecuencia

Decrease in suitability in the production of paddy rice, (++) cassava (++), soya (+), maize (+), rubber (+), and in livestock rearing (+).

Probabilidad

Probable

Alcance

Perjudicial

Importancia del riesgo

Riesgo medio

Consecuencia

diminishing of groundwater resources

Probabilidad

Muy probable

Alcance

Perjudicial

Importancia del riesgo

Riesgo alto

Nombre de la amenaza

Cambios de frecuencia e intensidad de los fenómenos climáticos extremos y desastres relacionados (p.ej. olas de frío y calor, inundaciones, sequías, tormentas, huracanes, ciclones)

Exposición

Comentarios

higher frequency and unpredictability of high rainfall events

Consecuencia

loss of crop production due to non-timely sowing and planting (traditional knowledge is no longer applicable)

Probabilidad

Probable

Alcance

Sumamente perjudicial

Importancia del riesgo

Riesgo alto

Consecuencia

Higher irregularity of the rainy season

Descripción de la consecuencia

Earlier onset of the hot season and prolonged duration. Shortened rainy season. A new sequence of flood-drought-flood episodes is observed during the rainy season: flood episode in June-July (too much rain) followed by drought in August (no rain at all), immediately followed by flood situation Aug-Sept (too much rain). This lead to higher demand for adequate early warning systems. Rain was delayed in 2019 and 2020, started only in mid of June.

Probabilidad

Probable

Alcance

Sumamente perjudicial

Importancia del riesgo

Riesgo alto

¿Evaluación detallada de riesgos necesaria?

Sí - Es necesaria una evaluación detallada de riesgos

Perspectiva del impacto

Calcule el impacto en el cambio climático

Componente de la actividad

None

Calcule el impacto en el medioambiente

Área medioambiental

Agua

Componente de la actividad

Capacity building of farmers and processors for increased sustainable production, including year-round production and performance

Impacto sobre el medioambiente

Higher agricultural performance and year-round production will increase the demand for water resources.

Estime el impacto en los riesgos de desastres

Componente de la actividad

Improved income and productivity of smallholder horticulture

Nuevo riesgo o riesgo agravado

More cycles of horticulture production may put pressure on the already stressed water resources in some places even more in some places. An integrated water resources management, based on surface & groundwater is needed, not to exacerbate the risk of future droughts.

¿Evaluación detallada de los impactos necesaria?

Sí - Es necesaria una evaluación detallada de los impactos