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Cambodian Horticulture Project Advancing Income and Nutrition (CHAIN)

Overview

General Information

Author

Moritz Krüger

Last updated

August 2018

Overall goal

Promotion of horticulture value chains in Preah Vihear, Stung Treng, Kratie and Oddar Meanchey provinces, with a strong focus on women and delivering sustainable income growth and improved household food security and resilience

Country

  • Cambodia

Budget

CHF 4.000.000

Duration

01.12.2014 - 30.11.2017 (Phase I)

Summary

Description

In Cambodia, more than 40 % of the rural poor suffer from food insecurity. The increasing market demand for vegetable and fruits provides a huge opportunity for small holder farmers and processors, in particular women to increase income and food security. The Cambodia Horticulture Advancing Income and Nutrition (CHAIN) project supports farmers and processors in increasing sustainable production, income and resilience in four of the poorest provinces of Cambodia - Kratie, Stung Treng, Preah Vihear and Oddar Manchey. With the particular focus on the fruits and vegetables sector, CHAIN tackles market system constraints to improve the service delivery to poor farmers households, women headed households and ethnic minorities. CHAIN will support smallholder farmers to diversify into growing fruit and vegetables through the introduction of modern horticultural techniques and market linkages required to generate much-needed additional income, and it will also address poor household nutrition by supporting a diversification of diets.

Keywords

  • agriculture and food security

Sectors of Intervention

  • Agriculture
  • Food security
  • Rural development
  • Water management

Logos

Risk perspective

Natural hazards (hydro-meteorological and geological)

Hazard name

Heat waves

Exposure

Yes

Consequence

higher freshwater demand for people and livestock

Likelihood

Very likely

Extent

Slightly harmful

Risk Level

Medium risk

Consequence

slower and reduced labour work

Likelihood

Likely

Extent

Slightly harmful

Risk Level

Low risk

Consequence

heatstroke in particular for elderly and children

Likelihood

Likely

Extent

Harmful

Risk Level

Medium risk

Hazard name

Droughts

Exposure

Not sure

Comments

Low river water levels paired with deforestation reduce groundwater recharge, and increase evaporation and water demand during dry/hot season.

Consequence

reduced water availability

Consequence description

Reduced water availability for household consumption and agriculture, particularly of paddy rice, cassava, rubber, and maize.

Likelihood

Very likely

Extent

Harmful

Risk Level

High risk

Consequence

loss of crop production & income

Consequence description

Partially severe economic losses (also due to the lack of business continuity planning) for rice and vegetable farmers. Households with limited to no savings are left to buy seeds for next season or drinking water. Impacts from strong droughts may be felt for up to 2 years. As a result of low coping mechanisms, some communities may not recover from such loss.

Likelihood

Very likely

Extent

Harmful

Risk Level

High risk

Consequence

long-term emmigration

Consequence description

migration occurs in various forms, both part-time and permanently, to urban areas, neighbouring countries or provinces

Likelihood

Likely

Extent

Extremely harmful

Risk Level

High risk

Hazard name

Flash floods, floods

Exposure

Yes

Consequence

loss of crop production & income

Consequence description

Long-lasting episodes with too much rain cause rotting of rice plants & vegetables during rainy season. The existing drainage and irrigation practices used by communities are largely insufficient to ensure the survival of crops and seeds during and after intense rain episodes followed by severe droughts.

Likelihood

Very likely

Extent

Harmful

Risk Level

High risk

Consequence

destruction of houses & infrastructure, disruption of market access

Likelihood

Very likely

Extent

Harmful

Risk Level

High risk

Hazard name

Storms, tornadoes, hurricanes, strong winds, sandstorms

Exposure

Yes

Comments

Seasonal storms

Consequence

Damage to houses and buildings.

Consequence description

Destruction of light agricultural infrastructure (bamboo scaffolding, nets etc.), damage to houses and critical roads/bridges. Storms and strong winds are observed more frequently in past years. Impacts are rather local.

Likelihood

Likely

Extent

Slightly harmful

Risk Level

Low risk

Hazards arising from environmental degradation

Hazard name

Deforestation

Exposure

Yes

Comments

Massive deforestation in Cambodia is highly likely to be the root cause of the devastating change in the observed rainfall pattern. It is caused by legal (attribution of land concession to foreign companies, building of roads in forested area, etc…) and illegal logging.

Consequence

Alteration of hydrological cycle and micro-climate, reduced water availability

Consequence description

The changed hydrological cycle has increased the frequency of both floods and droughts.

Likelihood

Very likely

Extent

Extremely harmful

Risk Level

High risk

Hazard name

Pests and epidemics

Exposure

Yes

Comments

locust, rats, flea beetle larvae

Consequence

loss of income and crop production

Consequence description

Invasion of flea beetle larvae (Chrysomelidae: Alticini), which leads to a severe destruction of vegetables, especially root and leaf vegetables. Occurrence increased in the past 3-4 years.

Likelihood

Likely

Extent

Harmful

Risk Level

Medium risk

Hazard name

Water pollution (surface and subterranean)

Exposure

Not sure

Comments

Algae blooming

Consequence

loss of fishery resources and income

Consequence description

Seasonal, severe invasion of Mekong river by a fist-thick layer of algae/aquatic plants which completely disrupt the normal fishing activities. This phenomenon started recently (around 2010-2012) and is observed in its maximum extension since a couple of years only.

Likelihood

Likely

Extent

Harmful

Risk Level

Medium risk

Hazards arising from climate change (and climate variability)

Hazard name

General trends towards higher or lower mean annual temperatures

Exposure

Not sure

Comments

higher mean annual temperature +5-10% (rel. term)

Consequence

higher water demand for people, livestock and agriculture

Likelihood

Likely

Extent

Harmful

Risk Level

Medium risk

Consequence

decrease of crop productivity

Consequence description

Decrease in suitability in the production of paddy rice, (++) cassava (++), soya (+), maize (+), rubber (+), and in livestock rearing (+).

Likelihood

Likely

Extent

Harmful

Risk Level

Medium risk

Consequence

diminishing of groundwater resources

Likelihood

Very likely

Extent

Harmful

Risk Level

High risk

Hazard name

Changes in frequency and intensity of climatic extreme events and associated disasters (e.g. cold and heat waves, flood, drought, storms, hurricanes, cyclones)

Exposure

Not sure

Comments

higher frequency and unpredictability of high rainfall events

Consequence

loss of crop production due to non-timely sowing and planting (traditional knowledge is no longer applicable)

Likelihood

Likely

Extent

Extremely harmful

Risk Level

High risk

Consequence

Higher irregularity of the rainy season

Consequence description

Earlier onset of the hot season and prolonged duration. Shortened rainy season. A new sequence of flood-drought-flood episodes is observed during the rainy season: flood episode in June-July (too much rain) followed by drought in August (no rain at all), immediately followed by flood situation Aug-Sept (too much rain). This lead to higher demand for adequate early warning systems.

Likelihood

Likely

Extent

Harmful

Risk Level

Medium risk

Detailed risk assessment needed?

Yes - A detailed risk assessment is needed

Impact perspective

Estimate impact on climate change

Component of the activity

none

Estimate impact on the environment

Environmental Area

Water

Component of the activity

Capacity building of farmers and processors for increased sustainable production, including year-round production and performance

Impact on environment

Higher agricultural performance and year-round production will increase the demand for water resources.

Estimate impact on disaster risks

Component of the activity

Improved income and productivity of smallholder horticulture

Exacerbated or newly created risk

Higher yield from horticulture may put pressure on the already stressed water resources even more. An integrated water resources management, based on surface & groundwater is needed, not to exacerbate the risk of future droughts.

Detailed impact assessment needed?

Yes - A detailed impact assessment is needed