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CEDRIG Operational

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Construction of a water treatment plant and sewer system for the Guaqui town, Department of La Paz / Municipality of Guaqui

Overview

General Information

Author

Roberto Méndez

Last updated

June 2018

Overall goal

Improve the current living conditions of Guaqui´s inhabitants through the implementation of an appropriate sewage system, benefiting the overall population

Country

  • Bolivia

Budget

Bs. 7'000'000 (approximately USD 1'000'000)

Duration

September 2016 - July 2017 (approximately 10 months)

Summary

Description

Due to the absence of a sewage treatment plant in the Guaqui town, wastewater is discharged directly to Lake Titicaca, causing serious water pollution. Through the construction of a sewage treatment plant, the water pollution will be reduced along with an improvement of the living conditions of the local population. As a result of frequent lake level flucuations, however, the sewage treatment plant might suffer negative impacts from flooding. In addition, frosts during the cold winter months can affect the plant's components such as (i) the sewage collection system and inspection chambers, (ii) emissary, (iii) pumping chamber, (iv) pressure pipe, (v) treatment plant, and (vi) infiltration ditches.

Keywords

  • Wastewater treatment system
  • sewage collection system
  • emissary
  • water pumps
  • lake contamination
  • Bolivia
  • Floods
  • frosts

Sectors of Intervention

  • Health
  • Tourism
  • Water and sanitation

Images

  • Project_LocationProject_Location
  • General_project_dataGeneral_project_data
  • LocationLocation
  • Coverage and extensionCoverage and extension
  • ComponentsComponents
  • Flood mapFlood map
  • Components and flood mapComponents and flood map
  • Hazard map - FrostsHazard map - Frosts
  • Guaqui picturesGuaqui pictures
  • InfrastructureInfrastructure
  • InfrastructureInfrastructure

Risk perspective

Natural hazards (hydro-meteorological and geological)

Hazard name

Flash floods, floods

Consequence

Due to extreme lake level fluctuations, the plant's components could be damaged and filled with sediments. The service would be interrupted. This happens in average every 15 years.

Severity

Extremely harmful

Vulnerabilities

Disconnected communities, increased pressure on soils and water resources, fragile incomes, relationship between municipality and Risk Management Unit, additional health risks

Likelihood

Likely

Significance

High risk

Selected Risk

Yes
Potential Measure Capacity building in DRR for local communities
Score (optional) 3.40
Comments The local community has no experience in DRR and should be included in the steering mechanisms (social control)

Selected Measure

Yes
Potential Measure Strengthen operation and maintainance
Score (optional) 3.20
Comments DRR-related aspects were not considered for plant's operation and management

Selected Measure

Yes
Potential Measure Early warning system
Score (optional) 2.00
Comments It is vital to observe the lake level fluctuations as well as the river discharge

Selected Measure

Yes
Potential Measure It is vital to observe the lake level fluctuations as well as the river discharge
Score (optional) 2.20
Comments Dykes to protect the plant's components

Selected Measure

Yes
Potential Measure Reduction of river discharge (river deviation)
Score (optional) 1.60
Comments Consider structural measures that permit the diversion of inflowing river water

Consequence

Due to flood events, the equipment can not be used and/or broken parts have to be replaced

Severity

Extremely harmful

Vulnerabilities

Skills: weak technical knowledge, replacement of spare parts, unsufficient access to credits and insurance solutions, lack of ownership of the municipality, emerging local markets and trade

Likelihood

Likely

Significance

High risk

Selected Risk

Yes
Potential Measure Use of water-resistant, robust equipment
Score (optional) 1.80
Comments Consider extreme events

Selected Measure

Yes
Potential Measure Risk transfer measures (insurance solutions)
Score (optional) 2.20
Comments Taking into account the socio-economic situation of the municipality and the local population, a insurance solution could be appropriate

Selected Measure

Yes

Consequence

During a flood event, the wastewater could contaminate the river water and cause health problems for the local population. Due to the topography, contaminated water would flow into the lake and not to the urban zone.

Severity

Slightly harmful

Vulnerabilities

Health: health education, social hygiene, health stations, health networks, unprotected water sources, precarious health situation

Likelihood

Likely

Significance

Low risk

Hazard name

Extreme cold

Consequence

Malfunction of the plant and drastic efficiency reduction of the oxidation basins. 90 to 180 days per year with frosts, 3835m a.s.l., average temperatures of 4°C , minimum temperatures -10°C (on average every 2 years)

Severity

Harmful

Vulnerabilities

Operation and efficiency: communities with respiratory infections, lack of maintainance, low technical capacity, frequent interruption of service

Likelihood

Likely

Significance

Medium risk

Selected Risk

Yes
Potential Measure Change to appropriate materials
Score (optional) 2.40
Comments Identify materials that support extreme cold temperatures

Selected Measure

Yes
Potential Measure Heating system
Score (optional) 1.40
Comments Identify a technical solution that allows the plant's operation within the material's optimal temperature range (e.g. heating system)

Impact perspective

Impact on climate change

Component of the project

Water treatment plant (oxidation basins)

Potential negative impact

Greenhouse gas emissions from the oxidation basins

Significance Taking into account the seize of the water treatment plant, high levels of GHG emissions can be expected. Even higher emissions are possible during a malfunction of the system

Selected impact

Yes
Potential Measure Artificial cover of the oxidation basins
Score (optional) 2.20
Comments Storage of gases and burning with appropriate technology

Selected Measure

Yes
Potential Measure Carbon sinks (afforestation)
Score (optional) 1.20
Comments Reforestation to compensate for GHG emissions

Potential negative impact

Emission of additional other gases by the water treatment system

Significance According to studies, the risk of problems arising from additional gas emissions is low in our stuy area.

Component of the project

Power systems of the plant

Potential negative impact

The generators of the different pumping systems run with diesel causing high emissions of GHG and black carbon

Significance Taking into account the plant's increasing utlization (close to its limits), the pumping hours will increase in the future along with emissions of GHG and black carbon

Selected impact

Yes
Potential Measure Use of alternative energies, energy generation through burning trapped gases from the oxidation basins
Score (optional) 1.60
Comments Strong winds in the study area (high potential for wind energy), and solar power

Selected Measure

Yes
Potential Measure Connection to the national power supply system
Score (optional) 1.20
Comments This measure would imply the installation power supply lines over long distances

Impact on the environment

Component of the project

Water treatment plant (oxidation basins) and pumping chamber

Potential negative impact

Bad odors could disturb the surrounding population

Significance Worsening of the quality of life for the local population and related health issues

Selected impact

Yes
Potential Measure Artificial cover of the oxidation basins
Score (optional) 2.00
Comments Prevents odor emissions

Selected Measure

Yes

Component of the project

Location of the water treatment plant

Potential negative impact

Landscape changes due to the different construction sites

Significance The water treatment plant could have an negative impact on the number of tourists visiting the Lake Titicaca region

Selected impact

Yes
Potential Measure Land use plan
Score (optional) 3.60
Comments The water treatment plant can be included in the plan as an element which improves the quality of stay for tourists

Selected Measure

Yes
Potential Measure Change of technology
Score (optional) 1.20
Comments It would mean substantial changes in the design of the project

Potential negative impact

The system will require large areas for construction

Significance The project could have an negative influence on local environmental planning and increase the need for additional human ressources of the Guaqui Municipality

Impact on disaster risks

Component of the project

Water treatment plant (oxidation basins)

Potential negative impact

New settlements around the plant in the future

Significance Structural measures to protect the plant (e.g. through dams) could attract people and lead to new settlements in flood-prone areas

Selected impact

Yes
Potential Measure Security strips
Score (optional) 3.20
Comments To be included in the territorial plans

Selected Measure

Yes
Potential Measure Purchase of land in surroundings
Score (optional) 1.20
Comments Acquisition of land to avoid new settlements in flood-prone areas

Potential negative impact

Exposure of the Guaqui´s local population to greater risks from natural hazards and increase of vulnerability

Significance The planned structural protection measures could lead of a shift of risks more towards the urban areas. Scientific studies estimate a medium risk for this development.